Feeding habits of the Pacific Porgy Calamus brachysomus (Teleostei: Sparidae) in the central Gulf of California, Baja California Sur, Mexico

Main Article Content

Anabel Veranes-Dip
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7606-0048
Xchel G Moreno-Sánchez
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4376-1753
Arturo Tripp-Valdez
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4226-0674
Marina S Irigoyen-Arredondo
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9887-3998
Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2339-8918

Abstract

The Pacific Porgy (Calamus brachysomus) is a commercially important fish in Baja California Sur, Mexico, where it reproduces year-round. The feeding habits of fishes can change during reproductive stages in response to changes in energetic demand. The objective of this study was to characterize the trophic habits of the Pacific Porgy and how these varied by sex, reproductive stage, and season. Monthly samples were obtained from July 2015 to July 2016 in the central Gulf of California. The stomach contents of 235 specimens (108 males and 127 females) were analyzed. The trophic spectrum comprised 90 prey items, including 58 mollusks, 14 echinoderms, 13 arthropods, 2 chordates, 1 annelid, 1 poriferan, and algal remains. According to the prey-specific index of relative importance (%PSIRI), the most important prey items were the bivalves Transennella spp. (7.24%), Argopecten spp. (6.94%), Anadara spp. (6.25%), Septifer zeteki (6.19%), and Tivela spp. (6.1%). The trophic spectrum varied significantly by season but not by sex or reproductive stage. There were no significant interactions between sex and season or sex and reproductive stage. According to the Levin index, C. brachysomus exhibited a narrow trophic niche (Bi = 0.31). Costello graphs indicated the dominance of a few species, with shifts in the relative abundance of prey species. Based on the trophic analysis, C. brachysomus was classified as a tertiary consumer (3.18). Therefore, C. brachysomus represents an important link between upper and lower trophic levels. Based on these results, we inferred that the Pacific Porgy is an opportunistic predator that feeds actively during all reproductive stages. Thus, the energetic requirements needed for reproduction appear to be covered by the prey that comprise the trophic spectrum of C. brachysomus without this species needing to switch to more energy-rich prey.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Veranes-Dip, A., Moreno-Sánchez, X. G., Tripp-Valdez, A., Irigoyen-Arredondo, M. S., & Abitia-Cárdenas, L. A. (2024). Feeding habits of the Pacific Porgy Calamus brachysomus (Teleostei: Sparidae) in the central Gulf of California, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Ciencias Marinas, 50. https://doi.org/10.7773/cm.y2024.3428
Section
Research Article

Metrics

References

Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Rodríguez-Romero J, Galván-Magaña F. 1990. Observaciones tróficas de tres especies de peces de importancia comercial en la Bahía Concepción Baja California Sur, México. Inv Mar CICIMAR. 5(1):55-61.

Aguilar-Estrada LA, Ruiz-Boijseauneau I, Rodríguez D. 2017. Juvenile stages of limpet-like gastropod and chiton (Mollusca) species associated with intertidal macroalgae from Guerrero, Mexico = Estadios juveniles de las especies de gasterópodos pateliformes and de poliplacóforos (Mollusca) asociados a macroalgas intermareales de Guerrero, México. Rev Mex Biodivers. 88(2):280-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2017.03.021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmb.2017.03.021

Ainsworth CH, Kaplan IC, Levin PS, Mangel M. 2009. Composición de las dietas de peces en el Golfo Norte de California. In: Morzaria-Luna HN (ed.), Un folleto de difusión del Integrative Marine Ecology. Ecosystem Science Program. Northwest Fisheries Science Center. Seattle (USA): NOAA. 12 p.

Amundsen PA, Gabler HM, Staldvik FJ. 1996. A new approach to graphical analysis of feeding strategy from stomach contents data modification of the Costello (1990) method. J Fish Biol. 48(4):607-614. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb01455.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb01455.x

Avendaño-Ibarra R, Godínez-Domínguez E, Aceves-Medina G, González-Rodríguez E, Trasviña A. 2013. Fish larvae response to biophysical changes in the Gulf of California, Mexico (winter-summer). J Mar Biol. 2013(1):1-17. https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/176760 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/176760

Baqueiro EC, Massó, JA, Guajardo, HB. 1982. Distribución and abundancia de moluscos de importancia comercial en Baja California Sur (No. 11). La Paz (BCS): Instituto Nacional de la Pesca, Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras, Secretaría de Pesca.

Baqueiro ERC, Aldana DA. 2000. A review of reproductive patterns of bivalve mollusks from Mexico. Bull Mar Sci. 66(1):13-27.

Bock LR, Goforth R, Stefanavage T, Sepúlveda M. 2010. Diet of shovelnose sturgeon in the Middle Wabash River, Indiana (USA). J Appl Ichthyol. 27(2):309-315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2010.01584.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2010.01584.x

Brown SC, Bizzarro JJ, Cailliet GM, Ebert DA. 2012. Breaking with tradition: redefining measures for diet description with a case study of the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica (Gilbert 1896). Environ Biol Fish. 95(1):3-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-011-9959-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-011-9959-z

Brusca RC. 1980. Common Intertidal Invertebrates of the Gulf of California. 2nd ed. Tucson (USA): University of Arizona Press. 513 p.

Buxton CD, Garratt PA. 1990. Alternative reproductive styles in seabreams (Pisces: Sparidae). Environ Biol Fishes. 28:113-124. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00751031 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2065-1_7

Castillo-Durán A, Castro-Acedo A, Arreola-Lizárraga JA, Hoyos-Chairez F, Cáceres-Martínez C, Mendoza-Salgado R, Martínez-Córdova L, Chávez-Villalba J. 2013. Gametogenic cycle and condition index of the clam Chione fluctifraga in Bahia San Jorge, Gulf of California, Mexico = Ciclo gametogénico e índice de condición de la almeja Chione fluctifraga en Bahía San Jorge, Golfo de California, México. Rev Biol Mar Oceanogr. 48(1):59-72. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572013000100006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572013000100006

Castillo-Rivera M, Zárate-Hernández R, Salgado-Ugarte IH. 2007. Hábitos de alimento de juveniles and adultos de Archosargus probatocephalus (Teleostei: Sparidae) en un estuario tropical de Veracruz. Hidrobiológica. 17(2):119-126.

[CONAPESCA] Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca. 2021. Anuario Estadístico de Acuacultura y Pesca 2021: CONAPESCA; [accessed 2023 Dec 12]. https://nube.conapesca.gob.mx/sites/cona/dgppe/2021/ANUARIO_ESTADISTICO_DE_ACUACULTURA_Y_PESCA_2021.pdf

Contreras-Catala F, Sánchez-Velasco L, Beier E, Godínez VM. 2015. Effects of a mesoscale eddy on the distribution of mesopelagic fish larvae in the Gulf of California = Efectos de un remolino de mesoescala sobre la distribución de larvas de peces mesopelágicas en el Golfo de California. Rev Biol Mar Oceanogr. 50(3):575-582. https://doi.org/10.4067/s0718-19572015000400014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-19572015000400014

Costello MJ. 1990. Predator feeding strategy and prey importance: a new graphical analysis. J Fish Biol. 36(2):261-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05601.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05601.x

Chakroun MN, Kartas F. 1987. Denture et regime alimentaire de especes ducenre Pagrus (Pisces: Sparidae) de cotes Tunisiennes. Cybium. 11:3-19.

Christensen V, Pauly D. 1992. ECOPATH II - a software for balancing steady-state ecosystem models and calculating network characteristics. Manila (Philippines): ICLARM. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3800(92)90016-8

Chavance P, Yáñez-Arancibia A, Flores-Hernández D, Lara-Domínguez A, Amezcua- Linares F. 1986. Ecology, biology, and population dynamics of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Pisces: Sparidae) in a tropical coastal lagoon system, southern Gulf of Mexico. An Inst Biol Univ Nac Autón Méx. 13(2):11-30.

De Mitcheson YS, Liu M. 2008. Functional hermafroditism in teleosts. Fish. 9(1):1-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2007.00266.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2007.00266.x

Do Carmo JPS, da Costa MR, Gerson FA. 2019. Energy acquisition and allocation to the gonadal development of Cynoscion leiachus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) in a tropical Brazilian bay. Mar Biol Res. 15(2):170-180. https://doi.org/10.1080/17451000.2019.1610777 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17451000.2019.1610777

Dubovitsky AA. 1977. Sex ratio and length-sex composition of the Campeche-Bank littlehead porgy (Calamus proridens, Jordan and Gilbert, 1884) population. In: Stewart HB (ed.), Cooperative investigations of the Caribbean and adjacent regions II. Caracas (Venezuela): FAO Fisheries. p. 115-122.

Eschmeyer WN, Herald ES, Hamman H. 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28. New York (USA): Houghton-Mifflin. 336 p.

Fernández-Palacios H, Izquierdo MS, Robaina L, Valencia A, Salhi M, Vergara JM. 1995. Effect of n-3 HUFA level in broodstock diets on egg quality of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Aquacult. 132(3–4):325-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(94)00345-O DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(94)00345-O

García-Domínguez FA, Carvalho-Saucedo L, Vélez-Arellano N. 2018. Reproductive cycle of two Modiolus capax (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) beds at different depths at Ensenada de La Paz, Gulf of California, Mexico. Hidrobiol. 28(3):313-323. https://doi.org/10.24275/uam/izt/dcbs/hidro/2018v28n3/carvalho DOI: https://doi.org/10.24275/uam/izt/dcbs/hidro/2018v28n3/Carvalho

Ghanbarzadeh HM, Soofiani NM, Keivany Y, Motlagh SAT. 2014. Feeding habits of the king soldier bream, Argyrops Spinifer (Forsskål, 1775) (Perciformes: Sparidae), in the northern Persian Gulf. J Appl Ichthyol. 30(3):485-489. https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.12397 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.12397

Giese AC. 1966. Lipids in the economy of marine invertebrates. Physiol Rev. 46(2):244-298. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1966.46.2.244 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1966.46.2.244

Goldman SF, Glasgow DM, Falk MM. 2015. Feeding habits of 2 reef-associated fishes, red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) and gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), off the southeastern United States. Fish Bull. 114:317-329. https://doi.org/10.7755/FB.114.3.5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7755/FB.114.3.5

Hendrickx ME. 1995a. Equinodermos. In: Fischer W, Krupp F, Schneider W, Sommer C, Carpenter KE, Niem VH (eds.), Guía FAO para la identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental Vol. 1 Plantas e Invertebrados. Rome (Italy): FAO. p. 637-646.

Hendrickx ME. 1995b. Cangrejos. In: Fischer W, Krupp F, Schneider W, Sommer C, Carpenter KE, Niem VH (eds.), Guía FAO para la identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacífico centro-oriental. Vol. I. Plantas e Invertebrados. Rome (Italy): FAO. p. 565-636.

Hendrickx ME. 1995c. Camarones. In: Fischer W, Krupp F, Schneider W, Sommer C, Carpenter KE, Niem VH (eds.), Guía FAO para la identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacífico centro-oriental. Vol. I. Plantas e Invertebrados. Rome (Italy): FAO. p. 417-537.

Hendrickx ME, Salgado-Barragán J, Toledano-Granados A, Cordero-Ruiz M. 2014. Los moluscos (Pelecypoda, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Polyplacophora y Scaphopoda) recolectados en el SE del golfo de California durante las campañas SIPCO a bordo del B/O “El Puma”: Elenco faunístico. Rev Mex Biodivers. 85(3):682-722. https://doi.org/10.7550/rmb.43077 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7550/rmb.43077

Hernández-Herrejón LA, Solís-Marín FA, Laguarda-Figueras A. 2008. Ofiuroideos (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) de las aguas mexicanas del golfo de México. Rev Biol Trop. 56(3):83-167. Holguín-Quiñones OE, González-Pedraza AC. 1994. Moluscos de la franja costera de Michoacán, Colima and Jalisco, México. Ciudad de México (México): Dirección de Bibliotecas and Publicaciones, Instituto Politécnico Nacional. 133 p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/rev.biol.trop..v56iS3.27082

Horvath ML, Churchill BG, Huntsman GR. 1990. Growth, mortality, reproduction and feeding of knobbed porgy, Calamus nodosus, along the southeastern United States coast. Bull Mar Sci. 46(3):677-687.

Hoşsucu B, Çakir DT. 2003. Some parameters about population biology of the Common Pandora (Pagellus erythrinus L., 1758) (Sparidae) in the Edremit Bay (Turkey). J Fish Aquat Sci. 20(3):329-336.

Houde ED. 1975. Effects of stocking density and food density on survival, growth and yield of laboratory-reared larvae of sea bream Archosargus rhomboidalis (L.) (Sparidae). J Fish Biol. 7(1):115-127. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1975.tb04581.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1975.tb04581.x

Hurlbert SH. 1978. The measurement of niche overlap and some relatives. Ecology. 59(1):67-77. https://doi.org/10.2307/1936632 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1936632

Inda-Díaz EA, Sánchez-Velasco L, Lavín MF. 2014. The effects of a tidal-mixing front on the distribution of larval fish habitats in a semi-enclosed sea during winter. J Mar Biol Ass UK. 94(7): 1517-1530. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002531541400023X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S002531541400023X

Jin S, Kim DG, Seong GC, Kang DY, Jeong JM, Kim HJ, Baeck GW. 2023. Feeding ecology of red seabream, Pagrus major (Sparidae) in the Korea Strait. J Appl Ichthyol. 63(3):534-545. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945223030050 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945223030050

Jiménez-Valverde A, Hortal J. 2003. Las curvas de acumulación de especies and la necesidad de evaluar la calidad de los inventarios biológicos. Rev Iber Aracnol. 8:151-161.

Johnson RB. 2009. Lipid deposition in oocytes of teleost fish during secondary oocyte growth. Rev Fish Sci. 17(1):78-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641260802590004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10641260802590004

Krebs C. 1999. Ecological methodology. Menlo Park (USA): Addison Wesley Longman. 620 p.

Luquet P, Watanabe T. 1986. Interaction “nutrition–reproduction” in fish. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2(1–4):121-129. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02264080 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02264080

Manooch III CS. 1977. Foods of the red porgy, Pagrus Linnaeus (Pistes: Sparidae), from North Carolina and South Carolina. Bull Mar Sci. 27:776-787.

Martínez-Zavala MA, Nevárez-Martínez MO, Anguiano-Carrazco ML, Santos-Molina JP, Godínez-Cota AR. 2010. Captura de peces pelágicos menores en el Golfo de California, temporada de pesca 2007-2008. Cienc Pesq. 18(2):5-18.

Matus-Nivón E, Ramírez-Sevilla R, Martínez-Pecero R. 1987. Descripción del huevo and primeras fases larvales de Calamus brachysomus (Lockington) (Pisces: Sparidae). Inv Mar CICIMAR. 3(2):43-52.

Matus-Nivón E, Ramírez-Sevilla R, Martínez-Pecero R, Ortíz-Galindo JL. 1989. Descripción de la larva and juvenil del Pacific porgy Calamus brachysomus (Lockington) (Pisces: Sparidae). Inv Mar CICIMAR. 4(2):141-150.

McBride RS, Somarakis S, Fitzhugh GR, Albert A, Yaragina NA, Wuenschel MJ, Alonso-Fernández A, Basilone G. 2015. Energy acquisition and allocation to egg production in relation to fish reproductive strategies. Fish. 16(1):23-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12043 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12043

Moreno-Sánchez XG, Pérez-Rojo P, Irigoyen-Arredondo MS, Marin-Enríquez E, Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Escobar-Sánchez O. 2019. Feeding habits of the leopard grouper, Mycteroperca rosacea (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Epinephelidae), in the Central Gulf of California, BCS, México. Act Ichtiol Piscat. 49(1):9-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3750/AIEP/02321

Morris RH, Abbott DP, Haderlie EC. 1980. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford (USA): Stanford University Press. 19 p.

Mylonas CC, Fostier A, Zanuy S. 2010. Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 165(3):516-534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.03.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.03.007

Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P. 2016. Vegan: Community Ecology Package. v.2.4-1: R documentation. Vienna (Austria): [publisher unknown]; accessed 2019 Feb 14. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan

Osman AM, Mahmoud HH. 2009. Feeding biology of Diplodus sargus and Diplodus vulgaris (Teleostei, Sparidae) in Egyptian Mediterranean Waters. World J Fish Mar. Sci. 1:290-296.

Pallaoro A, Santic M, Jardas I. 2003. Feeding habits of the saddled bream, Oblada melanura (Sparidae), in the Adriatic Sea. Cybium. 27(4):261-268. https://doi.org/10.26028/cybium/2004-274-003

Pauly D, Froese R, Sa-a PS, Palomares ML, Christensen V, Rius J. 2000. TrophLab manual. Manila (Philippines): ICLARM

Pavlidis MA, Mylonas CC. 2011. Sparidae: Biology and aquaculture of gilthead sea bream and other species. 1st Ed. West Sussex (UK): Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 412 p.

Pérez-Rojo M del P, Moreno-Sánchez XG, Marín-Enríquez E, Irigoyen-Arredondo MS, Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Quiroga-Samaniego M del M. 2022. Feeding habits of the snapper Lutjanus peru in the central Gulf of California = Hábitos alimentarios del pargo Lutjanus peru en la porción central del golfo de California. Cienc Mar. 48(e3200):1-21. https://doi.org/10.7773/cm.y2022.3200 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7773/cm.y2022.3200

Poutiers JM. 1995a. Bivalvos. In: Fischer W, Krupp F, Schneider W, Sommer C, Carpenter KE, Niem VH. (eds.), Guía FAO para la identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacífico centro-oriental, vol. I; Plantas e Invertebrados. Rome (Italy): FAO. p. 99-222.

Poutiers JM. 1995b. Gasterópodos. In: Fischer W, Krupp F, Schneider W, Sommer C, Carpenter KE, Niem VH (eds.), Guía FAO para la identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacífico centro-oriental, vol. I; Plantas e Invertebrados. Rome (Italy): FAO. p. 223-297.

Quiroga-Samaniego MM, Moreno-Sánchez XG, Irigoyen-Arredondo MS, Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Elorriaga-Verplancken FR, Tripp-Valdez A, Jakes-Cota U, Pérez-Rojo MP, Páez-Rosas D. 2022. Coexistence mechanism between sympatric snapper species revealed by stomach contents analysis and stable isotope analysis in the central Gulf of California, Mexico. Reg Stud Mar Sci. 54:102490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2022.102490 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2022.102490

Randall JE, Caldwell DK. 1966. A review of the sparid fish genus Calamus, with descriptions of four new species. Sci Bull. 2:1-47.

Randall JE. 1967. Food habits of reef fishes of the West Indies. In: Bayer FM (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Tropical Oceanography. Miami (USA): Stud Trop Oceanogr. p. 665-847.

Randall J. 1968. Caribbean Reef Fishes. Hawaii (USA): University of Hawaii. 318 p.

Reid GK Jr. 1954. An ecological study of the Gulf of Mexico fishes, in the vicinity of Cedar Key, Florida. Bull Mar Sci Gulf Caribb. 4(1):1-12.

Ricardo F, Pimentel T, Moreira ASP, Rey F, Coimbra MA, Domingues MR, Domingues P, Leal MC, Calado R. 2015. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site. Sci Rep. 5(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11125 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11125

Saborido-Rey F. 2004. Ecología de la reproducción and potencial reproductivo en las poblaciones de peces marinos[dissertation]. (España): Universidad de Vigo. 71 p.

Saborido-Rey F. 2016. Fish Reproduction. In: Cochran J, Bokuniewicz H, Yager P (eds.), Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. 3rd ed. Cambridge (UK): Elsevier. p. 232-245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09708-6

Salas S, Chuenpagdee R, Charles A, Seijo JC. 2011. Coastal fisheries of Latin America and the Caribbean. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. Rome (Italy). 444 p.

Salgado-Barragán J, Hendrickx ME. 2010. Clave ilustrada para la identificación de los estomatópodos (Crustacea: Hoplocarida) del Pacífico oriental. Rev Mex Biodivers. 81:1-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22201/ib.20078706e.2010.0.224

Sheaves M. 2006. Is the timing of spawning in sparid fishes a response to sea temperature regimes? Coral Reefs. 25:655-669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-006-0150-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-006-0150-5

Sedberry GR. 1989. Feeding habits of whitebone porgy, Calamus leucosteus (Teleostei: Sparidae), associated with hard bottom reefs off the southeastern United States. Fish Bull. 87:935-944.

Siddiqui JAP, Rashid FKS, Habib U, Hassan SMH, Amir SA. 2022. Feeding habits of three sparid breams, Argyrops spinifer Forsskål, 1775, Sparidentex hasta Valenciennes, 1830, and Rhabdosargus niger Tanaka & Iwatsuki, 2013 (family: Sparidae) in the coastal waters of Pakistan. Mar Biodivers. 52(27):52-57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-022-01264-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-022-01264-6

Smith JLB. 1938. The South African fishes of the families Sparidae and Denticidae. Trans R Soc S Africa. 26(3):225-305. https://doi.org/10.1080/00359193809519774 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00359193809519774

Solís-Marín FA, Laguarda-Figueras A, Durán-González A, Ahearn-Gust C, Torres-Vega J. 2005. Equinodermos (Echinodermata) del Golfo de California, México. Rev Biol Trop. 5(3):123-137. https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v53i3.26770

Thomson DA. 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. Tucson (TX): University of Arizona Press, 407 p.

Veranes-Dip A, Moreno-Sánchez XG, Abitia-Cárdenas LA, Villalejo-Fuerte MT, Irigoyen Arredondo MS. 2022. Reproductive cycle of Calamus brachysomus (Teleostei: Sparidae) in the Central Gulf of California, BCS, Mexico. Lat Am J Aquat Res. 50(1):78-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.3856/vol50-issue1-fulltext-2763 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3856/vol50-issue1-fulltext-2763

Ysla-Guzmán JA, Moreno-Sánchez XG, Rosales-Velázquez MO, Carrasco-Chávez V, Ortíz-Galindo JL. 2021. Feeding habits of Paralabrax nebulifer (Serranidae) during reproductive and non-reproductive seasons in an adjacent area to Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Rev Biol Mar Oceanogr. 56(2):89-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.22370/rbmo.2021.56.2.3053 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22370/rbmo.2021.56.2.3053

Most read articles by the same author(s)