Effect of the bacterial community on the growth, pigments and paralytic toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Graham)

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Dulce V Ramírez-Rodríguez
Christine J Band-Schmidt
Bárbara González-Acosta
Francisco E Hernández-Sandoval
Aldo Aquino-Cruz
Sonia I Quijano-Scheggia
José J Bustillos-Guzmán


Gymnodinium catenatum, a dinoflagellate that produces paralytic toxins, is one of the most studied dinoflagellate species. However, scarce information exists about its interaction with bacteria. In this study, the effect of a bacterial consortium in strains of G. catenatum was determined. Four strains of G. catenatum isolated from Bahía de Santiago, Colima; Lázaro Cárdenas, Michoacán; and Bahía Concepción and Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur were used. From the strain isolated from the coasts of Colima, a bacterial consortium was isolated with agar plates with GSe media that were incubated at a salinity of 34, at 24 °C in a L:D cycle of 12:12 h. Gymnodinum catenatum was cultivated in GSe media under the same conditions as the bacterial consortium. The interaction between these microorganisms was evaluated inoculating G. catenatum strains with the bacterial consortium. The maximum abundance, growth rate, chain length, toxin, and pigment profile were determined in G. catenatum with and without the bacterial consortium. In the presence of bacteria there was no clear effect on the growth, toxin profile, and toxin content in G. catenatum, but a significant increase in the chain length was observed. Changes in cell morphology were also observed. In addition, in the presence of the bacterial consortium, there was an increase in accessory pigments in most strains. Results suggest that the bacterial consortium could be a stress factor for G. catenatum and provide new perspectives on the interaction between bacteria and G. catenatum.


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Ramírez-Rodríguez, D. V., Band-Schmidt, C. J., González-Acosta, B., Hernández-Sandoval, F. E., Aquino-Cruz, A., Quijano-Scheggia, S. I., & Bustillos-Guzmán, J. J. (2024). Effect of the bacterial community on the growth, pigments and paralytic toxins of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Graham). Ciencias Marinas, 50. https://doi.org/10.7773/cm.y2024.3415
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